In Ohio, you’ll encounter a diverse range of sparrows. The American Tree Sparrow, Chipping Sparrow, Clay-colored Sparrow, Dark-eyed Junco, Eastern Towhee, Lark Sparrow, Sagebrush Sparrow, Baird’s Sparrow, and Black-throated Sparrow are among the species you can observe.
These small birds have unique characteristics and habitats, making them fascinating subjects for study. By exploring their behaviors, nesting habits, and migratory patterns, you’ll gain a deeper understanding of the sparrows found in Ohio.
Get ready to delve into the world of sparrows and appreciate their beauty and significance in the state.
- American Tree Sparrow, Chipping Sparrow, Clay-colored Sparrow, Dark-eyed Junco, Eastern Towhee are sparrows found in Ohio.
- Nelson’s Sparrow is a long-distance migrant that breeds in northern regions of North America and spends winters along southern coasts.
- Habitat loss caused by human activities and coastal development are major threats to Nelson’s Sparrow.
- Conservation efforts for Nelson’s Sparrow focus on understanding their habitat needs and implementing effective strategies to protect and restore their habitats.
American Tree Sparrow
You should observe the American Tree Sparrow closely to learn more about its behavior.
This small bird, scientifically known as Spizella arborea, is a common sight during the winter months in North America. The American Tree Sparrow is known for its distinctive plumage, with a rusty cap on its head and a dark spot on its breast. It can be found in a variety of habitats, including open fields and shrubby areas.
One interesting behavior of this species is its annual migration. American Tree Sparrows breed in the far northern regions of Canada and Alaska, but during the winter, they travel south to the United States and even Mexico. This long-distance migration allows them to find more abundant food sources and better survival conditions during the colder months.
If you look closely, you can spot a Chipping Sparrow in Ohio’s open fields and shrubby areas. These small, charming birds are known for their distinctive chirping call and brownish plumage. Chipping sparrows are common in the state and can be observed throughout the year, although they’re particularly abundant during the breeding season.
When it comes to nesting habits, chipping sparrows prefer to build their nests in trees or shrubs, around 3 to 6 feet above the ground. They construct cup-shaped nests using a variety of materials, including twigs, grass, and rootlets. Their nests are often well-hidden and camouflaged among the foliage.
In terms of diet, chipping sparrows primarily feed on seeds, especially during the winter months when insects are scarce. They’re also known to consume small fruits and berries. During the breeding season, they may supplement their diet with insects and spiders to ensure proper nutrition for their young.
Overall, chipping sparrows are fascinating birds that have adapted well to Ohio’s open habitats. Their nesting habits and diet highlight their resilience and resourcefulness in the face of changing environmental conditions.
When observing sparrows in Ohio, keep an eye out for the Clay-colored Sparrow, as it’s known for its distinct plumage and unique song.
The Clay-colored Sparrow, scientifically known as Spizella pallida, is a small passerine bird that belongs to the family Passerellidae. This species is primarily found in the central regions of North America, including Ohio, during its breeding season.
The Clay-colored Sparrow exhibits interesting migration patterns, as it migrates from its wintering grounds in southern Mexico and Central America to its breeding grounds in the northern United States and southern Canada.
During the breeding season, these sparrows prefer open areas with shrubs and grasses, where they build cup-shaped nests made of grass and twigs. The Clay-colored Sparrow’s breeding habits include monogamous mating, with both parents participating in nest-building and feeding the young.
Understanding the migration patterns and breeding habits of the Clay-colored Sparrow is crucial for conservation efforts and maintaining healthy populations of this species in Ohio and beyond.
Take a closer look at the Dark-eyed Junco, as it is a common and fascinating bird species found in Ohio. The Dark-eyed Junco, also known as Junco hyemalis, is a small sparrow that is easily recognizable by its dark hooded appearance and white belly. This species exhibits interesting migration patterns, with some individuals migrating from their breeding grounds in Ohio to wintering grounds in the southern United States. Dark-eyed Juncos are known to breed in coniferous forests and brushy areas, where they build cup-shaped nests made of twigs, grass, and moss. They typically lay 3-5 eggs, which are incubated by the female for about 12-13 days. The chicks are born altricial, meaning they are helpless and rely on their parents for food and protection. It is truly fascinating to observe the dark-eyed junco’s migration patterns and breeding habits, shedding light on their remarkable adaptability and survival strategies.
|Migration Patterns||Breeding Habits|
|Some individuals migrate from Ohio to southern U.S. for winter||Breed in coniferous forests and brushy areas|
|Build cup-shaped nests made of twigs, grass, and moss|
|Lay 3-5 eggs|
|Incubation period of 12-13 days|
|Chicks are born altricial|
You can easily spot multiple Eastern Towhees in the brushy areas of Ohio, as they’re known for their distinctive red eyes and melodic songs.
The Eastern Towhee, also known as Pipilo erythrophthalmus, is a medium-sized bird that belongs to the family Emberizidae. This species is commonly found in the eastern and central parts of the United States, including Ohio.
Eastern Towhees prefer habitats with dense vegetation such as shrubby areas, woodland edges, and thickets. They’re ground-dwelling birds and spend most of their time foraging on the ground, using their strong beaks to scratch in leaf litter and uncover insects, seeds, and berries.
These birds are known for their unique scratching behavior, where they use both feet simultaneously to dig through the ground in search of food. Their distinctive red eyes, black upperparts, and rufous sides make them easily recognizable in their habitat.
You can easily identify the Field Sparrow by its distinct song and its habit of foraging on the ground, scratching for insects and seeds. This small bird, known for its reddish-brown cap and grayish-brown plumage, is a common sight in fields and grasslands across North America.
When it comes to bird migration patterns, the Field Sparrow exhibits some interesting behaviors. Here are four key points to consider:
Wintering Grounds: Field Sparrows typically migrate to the southern United States and Mexico during the winter months.
Breeding Grounds: They return to their breeding grounds in the spring, which are primarily located in the eastern and central parts of North America.
Timing: Field Sparrows are considered medium-distance migrants, with their migration occurring primarily during the night.
Habitat Selection: During migration, Field Sparrows prefer open habitats such as grasslands and shrubby areas.
Understanding these bird migration patterns helps researchers and bird enthusiasts track the movements and populations of Field Sparrows, contributing to our knowledge of their ecology and conservation.
Listen closely for the melodious song of the Fox Sparrow, as it hops along the forest floor, scratching for insects and seeds. This beautiful bird species, known for its reddish-brown plumage and distinct white underparts, is currently a hot topic of discussion among bird enthusiasts. The Fox Sparrow is a migratory bird, traveling long distances to breed and find food. It can be found in various regions of North America, including Ohio, during the winter months. The table below showcases some interesting facts about the Fox Sparrow and its migration patterns:
|Migration Pattern||Food Sources|
Understanding the Fox Sparrow’s migration behavior and its reliance on specific food sources is essential for conserving its habitat and ensuring its survival. Let’s continue to appreciate and protect these remarkable birds.
Spot the Grasshopper Sparrow as it flits among the tall grass, blending in perfectly with its surroundings. This small bird, typically measuring around six inches in length, can be identified by its short, rounded wings and streaked brown plumage.
Here are four key aspects to consider when discussing the habitat and migration patterns of the Grasshopper Sparrow:
Habitat: Grasshopper Sparrows prefer open grasslands with scattered shrubs and patches of bare ground. They’re often found in prairies, meadows, and pastures, where they can forage for insects and build their nests on the ground.
Migration: Grasshopper Sparrows are neotropical migrants, meaning they travel long distances between their breeding and wintering grounds. They breed in the northern parts of North America and migrate to southern states, Mexico, and Central America during the winter.
Mating behaviors: During the breeding season, male Grasshopper Sparrows establish territories and perform elaborate courtship displays. They engage in aerial displays, sing from prominent perches, and engage in aggressive behaviors to attract a female mate.
Vocalizations: Grasshopper Sparrows are known for their distinctive song, which consists of a series of short, insect-like buzzes and trills. Males use their vocalizations to defend their territory and attract mates.
Learn more about Henslow’s Sparrow, a small, secretive bird that inhabits grasslands and wet meadows, and is known for its distinctive song and unique breeding behaviors. Henslow’s Sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii, is a species of concern for conservationists due to habitat loss. The conversion of grasslands into agriculture and urban areas has resulted in a decline in suitable habitats for this species. To emphasize the importance of Henslow’s Sparrow conservation, let’s consider the following table:
|Key Factors||Impact on Henslow’s Sparrow|
|Habitat Loss||Decreased nesting sites and food availability|
|Fragmentation||Difficulty in finding suitable mates and resources|
|Pesticide Use||Negative effects on nesting success and survival rates|
Understanding the consequences of habitat loss is crucial for implementing effective conservation strategies. By protecting and restoring grasslands and wet meadows, we can help ensure the survival of this unique and important bird species.
You can observe the House Sparrow both in your backyard and at the park, so keep an eye out for this common yet fascinating bird.
The House Sparrow, scientifically known as Passer domesticus, is a small passerine bird that’s native to Eurasia and has been introduced to various parts of the world, including North America.
Here are four key aspects of House Sparrow behavior and habitat:
Adaptability: House Sparrows are highly adaptable and can thrive in a wide range of habitats, including urban areas, farmland, and grasslands.
Social Behavior: They’re highly social birds and often form large flocks. They communicate with each other through a variety of vocalizations.
Nesting Habits: House Sparrows typically build their nests in cavities, such as tree holes, crevices, or man-made structures like buildings and birdhouses.
Diet: They’ve a diverse diet, consisting of seeds, grains, fruits, insects, and human-provided food sources like bread crumbs and pet food.
Understanding these aspects of House Sparrow behavior and habitat can help us appreciate and coexist with these common yet fascinating birds.
Have you ever listened to the beautiful song of the Lincoln’s Sparrow during its migratory journey through North America? This small bird, weighing around 15 grams, is known for its melodious trill that can be heard in wet meadows, thickets, and shrubby areas.
The Lincoln’s Sparrow has distinct identification features that can help you spot it in the field. Look for a gray face with a buff-colored eyering and a central dark spot on its breast. Its back is streaked with brown and black, and its wings are reddish-brown with white bars.
During migration, these sparrows can be found in the western part of North America, but they breed in the northern regions. Understanding their habitat preferences and identifying their unique features can enhance your birdwatching experience.
Listen closely, and you’ll hear the haunting call of the Nelson’s Sparrow as it navigates its way through the marshlands. This small, secretive bird is known for its distinctive song, which echoes across the wetlands.
Here are four important facts about the Nelson’s Sparrow:
Habitat: Nelson’s Sparrows are primarily found in coastal marshes and wetlands, where they rely on dense vegetation for nesting and foraging.
Conservation Efforts: Due to habitat loss caused by human activities, such as coastal development and drainage projects, the Nelson’s Sparrow population has been declining. Conservation organizations are working to protect and restore their habitats to ensure their survival.
Migration Patterns: Nelson’s Sparrows are long-distance migrants that breed in the northern regions of North America and spend their winters along the southern coasts. They undertake impressive journeys, often traveling thousands of miles each year.
Threats and Challenges: In addition to habitat loss, Nelson’s Sparrows face threats from predators, climate change, and pollution. Understanding their migration patterns and habitat needs is crucial for implementing effective conservation strategies.
Spotting a Savannah Sparrow can be a thrilling experience for birdwatchers. These small, migratory birds are known for their distinct appearance and behavior.
In Ohio, Savannah Sparrows can be found in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, meadows, and agricultural fields. They prefer areas with low vegetation and open spaces, where they build their nests on the ground. Their nests are constructed using grasses, leaves, and twigs, providing a safe haven for their eggs and young.
As for their migration patterns, Savannah Sparrows in Ohio typically migrate to southern states and Mexico during the winter months. They return to Ohio in the spring to breed and raise their young.
Understanding the habitat preferences and seasonal movements of these sparrows is crucial for their conservation and management in Ohio.
You can learn more about the Seaside Sparrow by researching its habitat and migration patterns. Here are four key points to understand about this fascinating bird:
Habitat: Seaside Sparrows are primarily found in coastal marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. They prefer saltmarsh habitats with tall grasses and plenty of vegetation for nesting and foraging.
Coastal Habitat Conservation: Due to habitat loss and degradation, the Seaside Sparrow’s populations are declining. Conservation efforts focus on preserving and restoring coastal marshes, ensuring the survival of this species and the many other organisms that rely on these habitats.
Migration Patterns: Seaside Sparrows are known to be non-migratory, meaning they stay year-round in their coastal marsh habitats. However, some individuals may undertake short-distance movements within their range in response to environmental conditions or breeding requirements.
Behavior: Seaside Sparrows are highly territorial and form monogamous pairs during the breeding season. They build cup-shaped nests hidden among dense grasses, where the female lays 3-5 eggs. Both parents participate in incubation and feeding the chicks until they fledge.
Understanding the Seaside Sparrow’s habitat, the importance of coastal habitat conservation, its migration patterns, and behavior is crucial for ensuring the survival and well-being of this remarkable bird.
Join the discussion and share your favorite birding spots to observe the Song Sparrow in Ohio.
The Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) is a small passerine bird known for its melodious song. It’s a common resident throughout North America, including Ohio.
During the sparrow migration season, which typically occurs in spring and fall, Ohio becomes a popular destination for birdwatchers looking to observe these beautiful birds.
The Song Sparrows can be found in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, wetlands, and shrub thickets. Some popular birding spots in Ohio to observe the Song Sparrow include Magee Marsh Wildlife Area, Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, and Killdeer Plains Wildlife Area.
These locations provide suitable habitats for the sparrows, allowing for optimal viewing opportunities. So grab your binoculars and head out to these birding hotspots to catch a glimpse of the exquisite Song Sparrow during its migration.
Listening to the hauntingly beautiful call of the Swamp Sparrow can transport you to the serene wetlands where it resides. This small, migratory bird is known for its distinctive plumage and enchanting vocalizations.
Here are four key aspects of the Swamp Sparrow’s habitat and behavior:
Best Habitats for Swamp Sparrows: These birds prefer wetland habitats such as marshes, swamps, and bogs with dense vegetation and shallow water. They’re commonly found in the eastern and central regions of North America.
Mating Behaviors: During the breeding season, male Swamp Sparrows establish territories and perform courtship displays to attract females. These displays often involve fluffing their feathers, raising their wings, and singing their distinctive songs.
Vocalizations: The Swamp Sparrow’s song consists of a series of clear, musical notes that are often described as a ‘chip-chip-chip-buzz.’ Males use these vocalizations to defend their territory and attract mates.
Nesting: Swamp Sparrows construct cup-shaped nests close to the ground, often hidden in dense vegetation. They lay 3-5 eggs, which are incubated by the female for about 12-14 days. Both parents participate in feeding and caring for the chicks once they hatch.
Understanding these aspects of the Swamp Sparrow’s habitat and behavior can provide valuable insights into the life of this fascinating bird.
Take a moment to appreciate the unique melodic pattern of the Vesper Sparrow’s song, consisting of five distinct notes.
The Vesper Sparrow, scientifically known as Pooecetes gramineus, is a migratory bird found in North America. During the breeding season, these sparrows can be found in the grasslands and open habitats of the central and northern parts of the continent. They build their nests on the ground, usually hidden in tall grasses.
As for their migration patterns, Vesper Sparrows breed in the northern regions of the United States and Canada and migrate south to the southern parts of the United States and Mexico during the winter.
Understanding the migration patterns and breeding habits of the Vesper Sparrow is crucial for conservation efforts and ensuring the survival of this unique avian species.
You should appreciate the distinctive plumage and melodious song of the White-crowned Sparrow, as it adds a beautiful element to the avian diversity in Ohio. Here are some interesting facts about the white crowned sparrow and how you can attract them to your backyard:
Habitat: White-crowned Sparrows prefer open areas with shrubs, such as fields, meadows, and forest edges. They can also be found in urban areas, especially during migration.
Migration Patterns: These sparrows are migratory birds, spending the summers in northern parts of North America and migrating south during the winter. In Ohio, they’re commonly seen during the spring and fall migration.
Appearance: The white crowned sparrow is a medium-sized bird with a gray-brown back and a white belly. Its most distinctive feature is the black and white striped crown, which gives it its name.
Attracting to Your Backyard: To attract white-crowned sparrows, provide them with dense shrubs for cover and a variety of seeds such as millet, sunflower, and cracked corn. Additionally, a clean water source and a bird feeder will make your backyard more inviting to these beautiful birds.
Learn about the migratory patterns and unique plumage of the White-throated Sparrow, and discover how it adds to the diversity of sparrows in Ohio.
The White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) is a small passerine bird known for its striking appearance and distinct breeding behavior. During breeding season, the male White-throated Sparrow showcases a black and white striped head, a white throat, and a yellow spot between its eye and bill. This plumage isn’t only aesthetically pleasing, but also serves as a signal to attract potential mates.
Furthermore, the White-throated Sparrow is known for its migratory habits. It breeds in the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska and then migrates to its wintering grounds in the eastern and central parts of the United States, including Ohio. Its migration patterns contribute to the rich biodiversity of sparrows in Ohio, making it a fascinating species to study and observe.
There are few bird species in Ohio, but Brewer’s Sparrow is one that you should definitely keep an eye out for. This small songbird can be found in the western United States, including parts of Ohio.
Here are four important aspects of the Brewer’s Sparrow:
Habitat: Brewer’s Sparrows prefer open areas with low vegetation, such as grasslands, sagebrush, and scrublands. They can also be found in agricultural fields and along roadsides.
Behavior: These sparrows are known for their distinctive song, which consists of a series of clear notes followed by a trill. They’re often seen foraging on the ground, searching for seeds and insects. Brewer’s Sparrows are also known to engage in aerial displays during courtship.
Diet: The primary diet of Brewer’s Sparrows consists of seeds, especially those from grasses and sagebrush. They also feed on insects, including beetles, grasshoppers, and ants.
Conservation: The Brewer’s Sparrow is considered a species of least concern, meaning that it isn’t currently facing any major threats. However, loss of habitat due to land development and changes in land management practices could pose risks to their populations in the future.
If you’re interested in learning about another sparrow species, you might find it fascinating to know that Cassin’s Sparrow is known for its distinctive song.
This small bird, scientifically known as Peucaea cassinii, is primarily found in the southern parts of the United States, including the southwestern states and parts of the Great Plains.
When it comes to Cassin’s Sparrow conservation, it’s important to understand its habitat preferences. This species prefers open grasslands and prairies with tall grasses and scattered shrubs. It relies on these habitats for nesting, foraging, and overall survival.
Unfortunately, due to habitat loss and fragmentation, Cassin’s Sparrow populations have been declining in recent years. Efforts are being made to protect and restore their preferred habitats to ensure the long-term survival of this species.
You should check out the Lark Sparrow article, as it provides interesting information about this unique species.
Here are four key points to help you understand the bird behavior of Lark Sparrows:
Habitat: Lark Sparrows are commonly found in grasslands, open fields, and prairies across North America. They prefer areas with tall grasses and scattered shrubs where they can build their nests and forage for food.
Appearance: Lark Sparrows have a distinctive appearance with a bold facial pattern, including a black eye-line and a white mustache stripe. Their upperparts are mostly brown, and they’ve a white belly with dark streaks. This coloration helps them blend into their grassland habitats.
Song and Calls: Lark Sparrows are known for their melodious songs. Their vocalizations consist of a series of clear, musical notes followed by a trill. They also have various calls, including a ‘chip’ call when alarmed or during territorial disputes.
Foraging Behavior: Lark Sparrows primarily feed on seeds, insects, and berries. They forage on the ground, using a scratching motion to uncover food hidden beneath the grass. They also perch on shrubs or fence posts to scan for prey before swooping down to capture it.
If you’re interested in learning about the Sagebrush Sparrow, I can provide you with some fascinating information about this bird species. The Sagebrush Sparrow, also known as Artemisiospiza nevadensis, is a small passerine bird that is found in the western United States. It is known for its unique habitat preferences and interesting mating behaviors.
The Sagebrush Sparrow is primarily found in sagebrush-dominated habitats, hence its name. It prefers areas with dense sagebrush cover, often found in open landscapes such as sagebrush steppe and shrublands. This bird species is highly adapted to its environment, as it relies on sagebrush for nesting, foraging, and shelter.
During the breeding season, male Sagebrush Sparrows engage in elaborate courtship displays to attract females. These displays involve singing complex songs, puffing up their chests, and performing aerial displays. Once a female is attracted, the pair will build a nest together, usually on the ground near sagebrush plants. The female will lay a clutch of 3-5 eggs, which both parents will take turns incubating.
Table: Sagebrush Sparrow Habitat Preferences and Mating Behaviors
|Habitat Preferences||– Sagebrush-dominated areas|
|– Open landscapes such as sagebrush steppe and shrublands|
|– Dense sagebrush cover for nesting, foraging, and shelter|
|Mating Behaviors||– Elaborate courtship displays by males, including singing complex songs, puffing up chests, and aerial displays|
|– Nest-building on the ground near sagebrush plants|
|– Clutch size of 3-5 eggs, both parents incubating|
Have you ever seen a Baird’s Sparrow up close? This small bird, measuring around 13 centimeters in length, can be found in the grasslands of North America.
Here are four key points to help you understand more about the Baird’s Sparrow:
Habitat: The Baird’s Sparrow prefers open grasslands with a mix of short and tall vegetation. It often chooses areas with sandy or gravelly soil, where it can build its nest on the ground and blend in with its surroundings.
Migration Patterns: This sparrow is a long-distance migratory bird. It breeds in the northern parts of its range, such as the prairies of Canada and the northern United States, and then travels south to spend the winter in the southern United States and Mexico.
Diet: The Baird’s Sparrow primarily feeds on seeds and insects. During the breeding season, it supplements its diet with invertebrates to provide extra nutrients for its young.
Conservation Status: The Baird’s Sparrow is currently listed as a species of Least Concern. However, like many grassland birds, it faces threats such as habitat loss and fragmentation due to agriculture and urban development.
Understanding the habitat and migration patterns of the Baird’s Sparrow can help us appreciate and conserve this beautiful bird for future generations to enjoy.
Do you know that the Black-throated Sparrow is known for its distinctive black throat patch and white eyeline? This small bird, belonging to the Emberizidae family, isn’t commonly found in Ohio.
The Black-throated Sparrow is typically found in the southwestern parts of the United States and Mexico. Its preferred habitat includes arid and desert regions with shrubs and cacti.
Despite its limited presence in Ohio, the black-throated sparrow is still an interesting species to study. Understanding its migration patterns can provide valuable insights into bird behavior and ecological changes.
Researchers have observed that some individuals may occasionally stray from their usual wintering grounds, leading to occasional sightings in Ohio. Studying these migratory patterns can help us better understand the factors influencing bird movements and their responses to changing environments.
Frequently Asked Questions
What Is the Typical Habitat of the American Tree Sparrow in Ohio?
The typical habitat of the American tree sparrow in Ohio is diverse, including open fields, shrubby areas, and edges of forests. Chipping sparrows in Ohio exhibit behavior such as foraging on the ground and nesting in trees.
How Does the Chipping Sparrow’s Behavior Differ From Other Sparrow Species in Ohio?
The chipping sparrow’s behavior sets it apart from other sparrow species in Ohio. It exhibits unique foraging techniques, vocalizations, and nesting habits. Understanding these differences enhances our knowledge of sparrow behavior and their ecological role in Ohio.
What Distinguishing Features Can Help Identify the Clay-Colored Sparrow?
To identify the clay-colored sparrow, look for distinguishing features such as its pale grayish-brown plumage, distinct white eye-ring, and dark stripe on the crown. These characteristics set it apart from other sparrow species in Ohio.
Do Dark-Eyed Juncos Migrate Through Ohio During a Specific Season?
Dark-eyed juncos display migratory patterns in Ohio during specific seasons. Their population trends show fluctuations as they move through the state. Understanding these patterns can provide insight into their behavior and distribution.
How Does the Eastern Towhee’s Song Compare to Other Sparrows Found in Ohio?
The Eastern towhee’s vocalization stands out among the sparrows of Ohio. Its song is characterized by a series of distinct trills and musical notes, making it easily distinguishable from other sparrows found in the region.
In conclusion, Ohio is home to a diverse range of sparrow species. The American Tree Sparrow, Chipping Sparrow, Clay-colored Sparrow, Dark-eyed Junco, Eastern Towhee, Lark Sparrow, Sagebrush Sparrow, Baird’s Sparrow, and Black-throated Sparrow can all be found in this region.
These sparrows contribute to the rich avian biodiversity of Ohio, showcasing the state’s ecological importance.
Further research and conservation efforts are needed to protect and preserve these species and their habitats in order to maintain Ohio’s thriving sparrow populations.