Types of Squirrels in Pennsylvania

Having spent countless hours studying the various squirrel species in Pennsylvania, my experience has deepened my appreciation for these remarkable creatures. From the elusive Flying Squirrels gracefully gliding through the forest to the resilient Fox Squirrels foraging for food, each encounter has left me in awe of their unique traits.

I believe that delving into their behaviors and habitats offers a profound insight into the intricate web of life in Pennsylvania. As I continue to explore the world of squirrels, I am constantly amazed by the beauty and harmony they bring to the state’s diverse ecosystems.

Key Takeaways

  • Eastern Gray Squirrels are urban and suburban dwellers with gray fur and bushy tails.
  • American Red Squirrels are aggressive, territorial, and found in coniferous forests.
  • Fox Squirrels, the largest species, thrive in urban parks with varied fur colors.
  • Flying Squirrels, like the Northern and Southern species, have unique gliding abilities and diverse diets.

Eastern Gray Squirrel

The Eastern Gray Squirrel, a ubiquitous species in Pennsylvania, exhibits distinctive characteristics that make it easily recognizable in its natural habitat. Gray squirrels, known for their bushy tails and gray fur with hints of reddish-brown, are the most common squirrel species found in urban and suburban areas across the state.

These agile creatures measure between 16.6 to 21.6 inches (42 to 55 cm) in length, tail included, and weigh an average of 14 to 21 ounces (400 to 600 grams). They’re skilled climbers, often seen darting up trees or leaping between branches with remarkable agility.

Their adaptability to various environments, including parks, woodlands, and residential neighborhoods, contributes to their frequent sightings around bird feeders and in backyard settings.

American Red Squirrel

Energetically foraging across the coniferous forests of Pennsylvania, the American Red Squirrel exhibits notable territorial behavior and unique physical traits. These squirrels, scientifically known as Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, are recognized for their aggressive nature and small size, measuring around 11-14 inches (28-35.5 cm) and weighing approximately 7.1-8.8 oz (200-250 g).

With a lifespan averaging 2.3 years but capable of reaching up to 8 years, they’re widespread in Pennsylvania’s coniferous habitats. Their distinct reddish-brown fur sets them apart from other squirrel species in the region. American Red Squirrels are adept climbers, often seen darting through the treetops with agility.

Their presence adds liveliness to the forest ecosystem, contributing to the biodiversity of Pennsylvania’s woodlands.

Fox Squirrel

Among the tree-dwelling rodents inhabiting Pennsylvania’s diverse landscapes, the Fox Squirrel stands out as the largest and most adaptable species. Fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) in Pennsylvania can grow between 17.7 to 27.6 inches in length, including their tail, and weigh approximately 1.1 to 2.2 pounds.

These squirrels are commonly spotted in urban parks and neighborhoods, showcasing their ability to thrive in human-altered environments. With females living up to 12.6 years and males up to 8.6 years in the wild, they can reach up to 18 years in captivity. Their fur can vary from reddish-brown to gray, adding to their visual appeal.

Fox squirrels play a crucial role in seed dispersal, contributing significantly to the ecosystem in Pennsylvania.

Northern Flying Squirrel

With a distinctive patagium enabling agile gliding between trees, the Northern Flying Squirrel, scientifically known as Glaucomys sabrinus, thrives in Pennsylvania’s conifer forests.

Here are some fascinating facts about this unique species:

  1. Gliding Abilities: The Northern Flying Squirrel can effortlessly glide from tree to tree using its patagium, covering distances of up to 150 feet in a single glide.
  2. Dietary Habits: These squirrels have a diverse diet, including fungi, lichens, insects, bird eggs, and tree sap, showcasing their adaptability to forest ecosystems.
  3. Predator-Prey Dynamics: Due to their nocturnal nature and group behavior, Northern Flying Squirrels are often targeted by owls, highlighting the constant struggle for survival in the wild.

Southern Flying Squirrel

In Pennsylvania’s deciduous forests, the Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans) exhibits nocturnal behavior and utilizes a patagium for gliding between trees. These squirrels are well adapted to their environment, with their furry membrane aiding in controlled descents from heights.

Their diet includes fungi, lichens, insects, bird eggs, and tree sap. Southern Flying Squirrels are proficient gliders, moving silently through the night to avoid predators like owls. They construct nests out of leaves and seek shelter in tree cavities, often displaying social behavior within their groups.

During winter, these squirrels gather in groups to conserve energy and stay warm, ensuring their collective survival in harsh conditions.

Habitat and Behavior

Demonstrating nocturnal tendencies and unique gliding capabilities, various squirrel species in Pennsylvania exhibit distinct habitat preferences and behaviors.

  1. Eastern Gray Squirrels and American Red Squirrels are commonly found in Pennsylvania’s diverse habitats, including urban areas, deciduous forests, and parks with abundant tree cover.
  2. Fox Squirrels prefer urban parks and neighborhoods with ample tree cover for nesting and foraging, displaying a preference for open spaces and human-altered environments.
  3. Flying Squirrels, such as the Northern and Southern species, exhibit nocturnal behavior and distinctive gliding abilities. The Northern Flying Squirrels favor conifer forests, while the Southern Flying Squirrels thrive in deciduous forests, showcasing specialized adaptations to their preferred habitats.

Significance in Ecosystem

Squirrels in Pennsylvania, through their role in seed dispersal and contribution as a food source for predators like hawks, play a crucial part in maintaining ecosystem balance. Both gray squirrels and red squirrels actively participate in seed dispersal by caching nuts and seeds throughout their habitat. This behavior aids in the natural reforestation process and supports plant diversity within the ecosystem.

As these squirrels bury nuts for later consumption and inevitably forget some of their caches, they unintentionally plant seeds in various locations, facilitating the growth of new vegetation. In turn, this process benefits other wildlife and helps sustain the overall health of the ecosystem. The presence of squirrels in Pennsylvania highlights their significance in promoting biodiversity and ecosystem resilience.

Frequently Asked Questions

Are Red Squirrels Rare in Pa?

Yes, red squirrels are relatively rare in Pennsylvania. They are known as pine squirrels and prefer coniferous forests. With a diet focused on pine, hemlock, and spruce seeds, their nocturnal habits make them elusive.

What Is the Difference Between a Fox Squirrel and a Gray Squirrel?

Fox squirrels are larger than gray squirrels. Fox squirrels average 17.7-27.6 inches in length, weighing 1.1-2.2 pounds. Gray squirrels are 16.6-21.6 inches long, weighing 14-21 ounces. Fox squirrels have reddish-brown fur, and gray squirrels have predominantly gray fur.

How Do You Identify a Squirrel?

To identify a squirrel, look for a bushy tail aiding balance and communication. Check for sharp claws for climbing and digging. Notice prominent incisors for gnawing. Observe quick, agile movements for tree navigation. Pay attention to size and color variations.

Are Black Squirrels Fox or Gray Squirrels?

Black squirrels in Pennsylvania are a color variation of the eastern gray squirrel. They share genetic similarities with gray squirrels and exhibit similar behaviors. Identifying them involves noting their black fur coloration. They are not fox squirrels.


In conclusion, the diverse squirrel species found in Pennsylvania play a crucial role in the state’s ecosystems. These squirrels contribute to natural reforestation, provide food for predators like hawks, and exhibit unique behaviors and habitat preferences.

Understanding and protecting these squirrel populations is essential for maintaining the balance and health of Pennsylvania’s natural environment.