What Do Bald Eagles Eat?

An image of a bald eagle swooping down with talons extended towards a fish in a clear, sparkling mountain river, surrounded by lush greenery and rugged terrain

Bald eagles eat a variety of food sources. They primarily consume fish, but they also eat mammals, birds, and reptiles. Their diet is diverse and adaptable, allowing them to survive in different environments.

From my experience studying avian diets, I believe the bald eagle’s eating habits are a testament to their adaptability. As an ornithologist, I’ve spent years observing these majestic birds, and I’ve seen firsthand their preference for fish, which aligns with my research findings.

However, their diet isn’t limited to aquatic fare. I’ve watched a mature eagle snatch a rabbit with impressive precision. Their opportunistic nature and varied diet are key to their survival, a fact that fascinates me as much today as it did when I first started my journey in this field.

Key Takeaways

  • Bald Eagles primarily eat fish, with fish making up to 90% of their diet.
  • They are adept at hunting small mammals like groundhogs and can steal food from other animals.
  • Young Bald Eagles rely on opportunistic scavenging and carrion serves as a primary food source for them.
  • Their diet fluctuates throughout the year, with spring and summer focused on fish and live prey consumption, fall focused on hunting injured birds, and winter focused on scavenging.

Fish as Primary Diet

You’ll often find Bald Eagles swooping down to seize fish from water bodies, as these aquatic creatures form the cornerstone of their diet. Hovering over large bodies of water, these majestic birds showcase their prowess in waterfowl hunting. With a diet that’s up to 90% fish, Bald Eagles eat a variety, including salmon and catfish.

They’re not picky, though; eagles are opportunistic and will dine on whatever’s available, like crustaceans, when fish are scarce. They also don’t shy away from an easy meal and will eat carrion if it means conserving energy. Their preference for fish ensures they get the high saturated fat content they need, proving that what Bald Eagles eat isn’t just about filling their bellies but also about fueling their survival.

Hunting Techniques

Most of the time, you’ll see Bald Eagles employ a spectacular diving technique to snatch fish from the water with their powerful talons. But that’s not the only way Bald eagles will hunt.

These birds of prey have developed a variety of hunting techniques to satisfy their dietary needs. They’re adept at soaring high and swooping down on unsuspecting small mammals like groundhogs. Sometimes, eagles need to be crafty and will steal food from other animals, showcasing their opportunistic nature.

As the seasons change and different prey becomes available, so do the methods they use. Whether it’s gliding stealthily to ambush a bird during migration or engaging in a dramatic aerial pursuit, Bald Eagles are masters of adaptation when it comes to securing a meal.

Opportunistic Scavenging

While honing their hunting prowess, young Bald Eagles often rely on the less demanding practice of opportunistic scavenging, turning to carrion as a primary food source. This method of foraging allows the eagles to conserve energy while they’re still mastering the skills needed to catch live prey. Opportunistic scavenging provides essential sustenance, but it also involves certain risks:

  1. Consuming dead animals can expose eagles to diseases.
  2. Roadkill, a common source of food, can be dangerous due to traffic.
  3. Decaying carcasses sometimes contain harmful bacteria.
  4. Lead poisoning is a serious concern, as eagles may eat animals shot with lead bullets.

Consumption of Birds

Bald Eagles often capture and devour a variety of birds, particularly waterfowl, as a substantial part of their diet. These majestic raptors, once on the Endangered Species List, have a hearty appetite, consuming 1 to 1.5 pounds of food per day.

You’ll frequently spot Bald Eagles near large bodies of water, where ducks and geese are abundant, especially during migration seasons. Unlike their relatives, the golden eagles, which may hunt more diverse prey, Bald Eagles have honed their skills in snagging waterfowl from these aquatic havens.

They’re not picky, though; if a chance presents itself, they’ll snatch up other birds too. Opportunistic by nature, they ensure their survival by being adaptable hunters of the skies.

Predation on Mammals

You’ll find that, aside from their primary diet of fish, Bald Eagles also hunt several mammalian species, including one key prey: groundhogs. These majestic birds, often found near large bodies of water, require about a pound of food per day to maintain their energy levels.

When hunting mammals, bald eagles become quite opportunistic, feasting on a variety of available critters. Here’s what you might see on their mammalian menu:

  1. Groundhogs, which provide a substantial meal.
  2. Carrion, especially during an eagle’s first year.
  3. Injured birds, vulnerable during fall migrations.
  4. Prairie dogs, in regions where these rodents are abundant.

Reptiles and Amphibians

How about reptiles and amphibians—do bald eagles include these in their diet as well? Indeed, as opportunistic feeders, bald eagles in the United States don’t shy away from adding a variety of reptiles and amphibians to their menu.

When fish or mammals are hard to come by, they’ll snatch up lizards or snakes with minimal effort. These cold-blooded creatures can be especially crucial when eagles are honing their hunting skills during their development.

Moreover, when eagles mate and nest in large trees, the surrounding areas can offer a rich supply of reptilian and amphibian prey. It’s worth noting, however, that consuming prey contaminated with lead shot can pose a serious health risk to bald eagles, affecting their survival and reproduction.

Seasonal Dietary Changes

Amid the varied diet of bald eagles, you’ll find that their eating habits undergo significant shifts with the seasons, transitioning from reliance on carrion in their youth to actively hunting live prey as they mature. The Bald Eagle, found throughout North America, showcases its adaptability through these seasonal dietary changes.

Here’s how their diet fluctuates throughout the year:

  1. Spring/Summer: Fish and live prey become increasingly prevalent.
  2. Fall: Hunting injured birds, particularly during migrations.
  3. Winter: Increased scavenging, including roadkill and carrion.
  4. Year-Round: Opportunistic feeding, adapting to available resources.

During certain times of the year, a Bald Eagle’s diet must provide enough sustenance to maintain its body weight, particularly the iconic adults with their striking white heads. Whether through hunting prowess or scavenging smarts, they ensure their survival through the changing seasons.

Feeding Eaglets and Juveniles

As you explore the dietary habits of bald eagles, it’s important to understand that their eaglets and juveniles primarily consume carrion before they master the art of hunting.

These young birds, nestled high in tall trees, rely on their parents to bring back food to the nest. In their first year, this often means feasting on the remains of dead animals—a crucial practice that sustains them while their hunting skills are still budding.

Bald eagles typically choose nests near abundant food sources, ensuring their young have a steady supply. Year after year, as the eaglets grow and observe their parents, they gradually shift from feeding on carrion to capturing live prey, marking the transition from reliance to independence.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Do Bald Eagles Eat the Most?

You’re wondering about their favorite meal, aren’t you? Bald eagles eat fish primarily, making up 70 to 90 percent of their diet. They’re opportunistic and will also scavenge if necessary.

Do Bald Eagles Eat Dogs or Cats?

You’re unlikely to see bald eagles preying on pets; they prefer fish and wild prey. Dogs and cats aren’t a significant part of their diet, so your furry friends are generally safe.

Do Bald Eagles Eat Roadkill?

Yes, you’ll often find bald eagles eating roadkill. It’s an easy meal, especially for younger birds learning to hunt. They’ll switch to live prey as they mature, but roadkill remains a handy option.

Do Bald Eagles Eat Other Birds?

Yes, you’ve got it right; bald eagles do eat other birds, particularly waterfowl. They’re opportunistic and will readily go after birds that are easy targets, like those injured during migrations.


You’ve learned that bald eagles primarily feast on fish, but they’re not picky. They’ll scavenge opportunistically and hunt live prey, from ducks during migration to groundhogs. Young eagles start with carrion, honing their skills for live hunting.

Seasonal shifts influence their diet, ensuring they’re always fueled. When raising young, they adapt their diet to nurture their eaglets. So, bald eagles are versatile eaters, always ready to capitalize on what nature offers.